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Exogenous Ketones | Artificial Ketones Don’t put you in Ketosis | How to Use on Keto (Keto Tip)
There’s a difference between nutritional ketosis or ketogenesis (the creation of ketone bodies in the liver by following the keto diet) and ketonaemia (the presence of ketone bodies in the blood) – taking EK promotes ketonaemia, not nutritional ketosis.
Ketones are known for their ability to suppress hunger and reduce cravings to their beneficial effects on ghrelin, insulin, etc. A study published int had 15 healthy individuals, ages 21 to 42, consume an exogenous ketone drink or an isocaloric dextrose following an overnight fast. As a result, exogenous ketone supplementation increased blood bHB levels from 0.2 to 3.3 mM after 60 minutes
Isocaloric dextrose consumption increased plasma glucose levels between 30 and 60 minutes. Postprandial plasma insulin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) levels were significantly lower 2 to 4 hours after exogenous ketone supplementation compared to isocaloric dextrose consumption. In addition, the reported hunger and desire to eat was significantly suppressed one and a half hours after exogenous ketone supplementation.
Encouraging Weight Loss:
Exogenous ketones (supplemental ketones) can actually increase the amount and efficiency of monocarboxylic acid transporters in your cells. This means it is easier for your cells to shuttle in ketones (the ones you can break down from your own fat) to be used for fuel. Easier time burning ketones means more request for fat as energy means more fat burning.
Weight Loss via BAT (Ketone Esters)
Ketone esters (in mouse studies) actually result in an activation of brown fat – the mechanism of this activation of brown fat is similar to that occurring from cold exposure in that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels are increased. Also has been shown to increase levels of the transcription factor cyclic AMP–responsive element–binding protein, which activates BAT as well.
*Ketone esters are a raw form of EK that are primarily used in studies*
Aerobic Performance (Esters)
To determine whether exercise intensity altered the metabolism of diet-derived ketones, researchers examined the effects of steady-state exercise on the clearance of blood and urinary D-βHB in 6 male endurance athletes. An identical amount of KE was consumed by athletes at rest, and during 45 min of cycling exercise (40% and 75% of WMax) in a randomized crossover design. βHB area under curve (AUC) during 45 min of rest or exercise was significantly decreased with increasing exercise intensity and correlated closely with increasing oxygen consumption. However, researchers found that BHB ester improved endurance performance in a 30-minute cycling test by 2-3% (400m) when taken before exercise (although taken with carbs)
May Hinder Anaerobic Performance:
In a study published in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, researchers worked with 10 adult men matched for athletic performance and body mass index. Following a period of fasting, the participants were given either bHb ketone salts or a placebo on a random basis. Half an hour after having ingested either the supplement or the placebo, they engaged in a timed cycling trial. The team found that compared with the day that they took the placebo, when taking the ketone salts, the participants’ total fat oxidation was greater in the ketone vs control group, but performance – in terms of power output – was 7% lower.
1) On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5670148/
2) Ketone salts: Do they really improve athletic performance? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319742.php
3) Canadian Science Publishing. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/apnm-2016-0641?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed#.W_XSVmaZNmA
4) Will Taking Exogenous Ketones Stop Fat Loss? – Dr. Anthony Gustin. (2017, August 27). Retrieved from http://www.dranthonygustin.com/will-taking-exogenous-ketones-stop-fat-loss/
5) The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858534/
6) Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309297/