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Inuit peoples are among the many cultures with a traditional diet of predominantly animal sourced foods and negligible carbohydrate. One might expect, then, that they would have been in ketosis most of the time. Some historical evidence suggests otherwise, leading to intense debate. Because the Inuit have been treated as an archetype and historical precedent for nutritional ketosis, stakes in this outcome appear high. If even the Inuit were not in ketosis, it seems that adopting a long-term, ketogenic lifestyle may be misguided, perhaps even dangerous. In this talk, I will present existing literature reporting ketosis measurements in Inuit populations, and explain why they are difficult to interpret. I will delve into research on the CPT1A Arctic variant, its effects on fat metabolism, and its potential selective advantages. Finally I will discuss the relevance of these observations in the broader context of ketosis and historical human diets.